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Human Coding vs. Machine Coding: Identifying and Measuring the Differences in CSS Code Quality

Summary: Human-coded cascading style sheets (CSS) are superior to machine-coded CSS, but the distinguishing characteristics have not yet been identified. This article introduces the abstractness factor, a metric that can serve as a benchmark for automated CSS coding. An evaluation of 100,000 randomly selected Web pages shows that a typical modern CSS has a higher abstractness factor than a CSS generated by a state-of-the-art machine generated CSS.

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  • Topics: Software Quality
  • Keywords: Computer software, Quality metrics, Software, World wide web (WWW), Cascading style sheets, Web standards, CSS, Abstractness factor
  • Author: Keller, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Martin
  • Journal: Software Quality Professional Magazine